THE WATCHERS

Watchers in Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the fall of the angels is mentioned twice. One is only a brief reference stating that the Watchers “changed the order of their nature.” (Naphtali 3:5) The second is in Reuben, where he accuses womankind of seeking to ensnare men.

“Thus they allured the Watchers before the Flood, for as these continually beheld them, they lusted after them and conceived the act in their mind; for they changed themselves unto the shape of men and appeared to them when they were with their husbands; and the women, lusting in their minds after their forms, gave birth to giants, for the Watchers appeared to them as reaching up to heaven.” (Reuben 5)
In this account, the writer denies that there was a physical union between the angels and mortal women. He says that the real fathers of the giants were humans, but the giants were conceived from the mutal passion from angels and women.
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Flavius Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews
Flavius Josephus,a Palestinian, wrote his Antiquities of the Jews to educate the Roman-Hellenistic world about Judaism and the Jews. In it, he recounts the tale of the Watchers as follows:

For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. But Noah was very uneasy at what they did; and being displeased at their conduct, persuaded them to change their dispositions and their acts for the better: but seeing they did not yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was afraid they would kill him, together with his wife and children, and those they had married; so he departed out of that land. – 1.72-75
According to Josephus, the union between the fallen angels and human women produced a race of giants, which in antiquity were called Nephilim.

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Philo’s Commentary on Genesis 6
Philo of Alexandria (20 B.C.E.-50 C.E.) wrote a commentary of Genesis 6 called Concerning the Giants. In it, he emphasized that the passage was not a myth.

“And when the angels of God saw the daughters of men that they were beautiful, they took unto themselves wives of all of them whom they Chose.”{#ge 6:2.} Those beings, whom other philosophers call demons, Moses usually calls angels; and they are souls hovering in the air. And let no one suppose, that what is here stated is a fable, for it is necessarily true that the universe must be filled with living things in all its parts, since every one of its primary and elementary portions contains its appropriate animals and such as are consistent with its nature; –the earth containing terrestrial animals, the sea and the rivers containing aquatic animals, and the fire such as are born in the fire (but it is said, that such as these last are found chiefly in Macedonia), and the heaven containing the stars: for these also are entire souls pervading the universe, being unadulterated and divine, inasmuch as they move in a circle, which is the kind of motion most akin to the mind, for every one of them is the parent mind. It is therefore necessary that the air also should be full of living beings. And these beings are invisible to us, inasmuch as the air itself is not visible to mortal sight. (But it does not follow, because our sight is incapable of perceiving the forms of souls, that for that reason there are no souls in the air; but it follows of necessity that they must be comprehended by the mind, in order that like may be contemplated by like.
– Philo, On the Giants II: 6-9

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Names and Misdeeds of the Watchers

Names and Misdeeds of the Fallen Angels (aka the Five Satans) in 1 Enoch 69:4-12. (1 Enoch gives other lists of the names of the fallen angels as well.) This passage is odd because it mentions angels that are not mentioned elsewhere.
Yeqon – “one who misled all the children of the angels, brought them down upon the earth, and perverted them by the daughters of the people”
Asb’el – “one who gave the children of the holy angels an evil counsel and misled them so that they would defile their bodies by the daughters of the people”
Gader’el – “he who showed the children of the people all the blows of death, who misled Eve, who showed the children of the people (how to make) the instruments of death (such as) the shield, the breastplate, and the sword for warfare, and all (the other) instruments of death to the children of the people”
Pinem’e – “demonstrated to the children of the people the bitter and the sweet and revealed to them all the secrets of their wisdom. Furthermore he caused the people to penetrate (the secret of) writing and (the use of) ink and paper”
Kasadya – “he who revealed to the children of the people (the various) flagellations of all evil – (the flagellation) of the souls and the demons, the smashing of the embryo in the womb so that it may be crushed, the flagellation of the soul, snake bites, sunstrokes, the son of the serpent, whose name is Taba’ta”
Names of other fallen angels – Semyaz, Aristaqis, Armen, Kokba’el, Tur’el, Rumyal, Danyul, Neqa’el, Baraqel, Azaz’el, Armaros, Betryal, Basas’el, Hanan’el, Tur’el, Sipwese’el, Yeter’el, Tuma’el, Tur’el, Rum’el, and Azaz’el – 1 Enoch 69:2

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